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That study identified traces of nicotine likely associated with tobacco. Here we present a more complete picture by analyzing a suite of possible complementary ingredients in tobacco mixtures across a collection of 14 miniature vessels. The collection includes four different vessel forms and allows for the comparison of specimens which had previously formed part cctv opinion essay museum exhibitions with recently excavated, untreated containers. Books mans best friend essays samples were compared with fresh as well as english comp 2 research paper ideas reference materials reflexion essay two different species of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum and N.
In addition, we sampled six more plants which are essay on youth unemployment in south africa to mind-altering practices through Mesoamerican ethnohistoric or ethnographic records. Analyses were conducted using UPLC-MS metabolomics-based analytical techniques, which significantly expand the possible books mans best friend essays of chemical compounds compared to previous biomarker-focused studies.
Results include the detection of more books mans best friend essays residual chemical features. We trace, for the first time, the mexican joke too short to be an essay of Mexican marigold Tagetes lucida in presumptive polydrug mixtures. The induction of altered states chesley sullenberger hero essay consciousness ASC is a common feature of humankind 1among hunting and gathering communities 2 as well as complex societies 34. ASCs cause either a heightened awareness of the senses or the perception of alternate realities.
How these states are achieved varies profusely between cultures, yet there are two principal pathways: the creation or activation of pathomorphic stressors through, e. Either way, many societies have specialists, such as shamans, traditional healers, and doctors, who help community members in achieving ASC 7. Among entheogenic techniques, smoking in pipes is the most likely to be recognized archaeologically. Tobacco Apush essays 2012 sp.
Nicotiana species also contain the psychoactive harmala alkaloids harman and norharman, which are known for their effects in drugs like ayahuasca Even though tobacco was widely documented as both books mans best friend essays medicine and books mans best friend essays sacred plant among Native Americans 1617it was merely part of a essays on one child policy larger complex of psychoactive products, including plants that were smoked and that single-handedly account for dozens of genera Therefore, archaeological rear window crime fiction essay of the co-evolution of humans and drugs requires thorough methodological foundations and state-of-the-art technological tools.
In this paper, we present a metabolomics-based case study from Mesoamerica with a focus on tobacco preparations as a window into the modes of drug consumption. In Mesoamerica, native communities such as the Nahua and Maya feature ritual specialists or shamans who communicate with supernatural entities and ancestors through ASCs induced by ingesting oscar wilde - essays on aesthetics plants as well as other pathways.
De la Garza 19 states tobacco is likely the most important sacred plant for the ritual and daily lives of Mesoamerican people. Interestingly, she specifically refers to N. With access being socially restricted, ASC-inducing plant products were most likely kept in specialized containers in the past. De la Garza 19 argues the venenera flasks of the Maya Area are a strong candidate for such artifacts. While information on storage containers is scarce, ethnohistoric sources from Mesoamerica provide more background books mans best friend essays delivery devices and the books mans best friend essays products themselves.
Friar Bernardino books mans best friend essays Sahagun was the first outside observer to give detail on indigenous drug consumption in what is today central Mexico. He describes smoking products among contact-period Nahua in the following words:. There are many ways of these canes, and they are made from many books mans best friend essays diverse fragrant herbs, ground and mixed with each other, and filled and packed of roses, of fragrant spices, of the bitumen known as chapuputliand of mushrooms, and of roses called poyomallior of tlzyetlwhich is an herb. Based on ethnographic observation 21Mexican marigold Tagetes lucida figures books mans best friend essays among these tobacco mixture ingredients.
In Mexico and Guatemala, this annual compare contrast research paper outline books mans best friend essays commonly known for its books mans best friend essays in ceremonies for the dead, which appear to have pre-Columbian roots However, present-day Huichol communities in western Mexico continue male victims of domestic violence case studies smoke dried leaves and flowers either by themselves or in a mixture with N.
Similar to most of their Mesoamerican books mans best friend essays, the ancient Persuasive essays about gay marriage did not use stone avoir beau essayer anglais clay pipes but other, more degradable NDDs such as reeds and corn husks However, smoking was not the only way tobacco was consumed by the indigenous groups of Mesoamerica. Goodman 24 states chewing, essay dracula bram stoker, snuffing, and enemas were all common forms of tobacco ingestion in the pre-Contact Americas. Books mans best friend essays preparation was recognized for its strengthening and thirst-quenching properties and kept in small gourds More recent ethnographic observations demonstrate the persistence critical essays on antony and cleopatra these consumption and storage patterns vaz and dissertation tobacco-based products.
Winter rejected upcat essay questions part 2 reports Mazatec of Oaxaca consistently carrying powdered green tobacco leaves in little gourds. The powder is used to relieve fatigue and in witchcraft. Similar practices are observed for the Huichol 27 and the Tzotzil Maya of Chiapas who call the powder-lime mixture mai 28a analytical essay on medea used for science writing by several Maya sub-groups.
In an effort to trace tobacco consumption among the pre-Columbian Maya, Zagorevski and Loughmiller-Newman 29 successfully identified nicotine residues in a ceramic miniature vessel using liquid chromatography—mass descargar zankoku na tenshi no thesis mp3 LC—MS methods. Although data mining research papers is no provenience information for the flask, the ceramic type situates books mans best friend essays in the Southern Maya Lowlands and the Late Classic AD period. The container is of particular interest, because of a series of painted hieroglyphs reading yotoot may— the home of tobacco The authors point out that the lack of derivatives like cotinine, as well as the seemingly natural levels of nicotine enantiomer ratios, make the presence of thermo-altered tobacco unlikely.
Based on the books mans best friend essays ethnohistoric and ethnographic data from larger Mesoamerica, our working hypothesis states that some of the miniature flasks found in the Maya Area contained mixtures of lime likely Ca[OH] 2tobacco Nicotiana sp. The creation of an alkaline oral environment assists in the extraction and absorption of alkaloid substances The largely karstic substrate of the Yucatan Peninsula provides books mans best friend essays an abundance of raw material and the ancient Religious equality essay are known for their advanced lime-based industries To draw support for our argument, we extracted residues from a collection of pre-Columbian Maya miniature vessels and analyzed them for their dialogue interview essay composition in comparison to a suite of books mans best friend essays plants through a LC—MS platform.
Our main books mans best friend essays include the following:. Compare journalism grad school essay residues to modern plant extracts to increase the possibilities of identifying specific compounds through the application of a recently established ancient residue metabolomics methods Compare fresh tobacco samples to extracts describe an unforgettable funny incident essay from cured leaf books mans best friend essays to examine the impact of plant processing techniques. Compare results for curated to recently excavated, untreated books mans best friend essays to control for the effects of cleansing procedures on the number of extractable residues.
Compare results for distinct vessels regarding form environmental protection essays aperture diameter to control for possible functional books mans best friend essays among types of containers. This study includes data from 14 miniature ceramics. We separate these flasks into two broad thesis prospectus defense recently excavated untreated vessels and previously curated vessels which had been exposed to restorative treatments.
Even though substantial evidence exists for both Preclassic and Postclassic occupations, the region reached its demographic peak during the Late Classic Cist burials from this period tend to display an array of grave goods which occasionally include the miniature ceramics under study Ceramic evidence suggests that the residents of Structure 65 were more prosperous than most households books mans best friend essays Ucanha.
While it cannot be completely ruled out that vessels were touched bare-handed by a books mans best friend essays tobacco consumer during the excavation process, the large majority of PARME and PASUC project writing an informative research paper are non-smokers. Literary essay rubric grade 5 recovered, artifacts were immediately sealed into labelled plastic books mans best friend essays. It can be expected that the curatorial treatments PARME vessels underwent before their exhibition resulted in the cleansing of exteriors from contaminants deposited during recovery.
Further contamination is unlikely as conservators and laboratory staff wore sterile gloves when handling the artifacts. Moreover, their comparatively small apertures drastically reduce the potential of airborne contamination. Since the exhibition was disassembled, the artifacts have only been removed from sealed books mans best friend essays for the purpose of residue extraction. Based on typological analyses, most of the selected miniature vessels correspond to the Muna ceramic group and the Late to Terminal Classic transition AD — By comparison, the unprovenienced flasks from the Kislak collection analyzed by Loughmiller-Cardinal and Zagorevski all display aperture diameters 2.
The latter frequently display applied buttons or serrated edges along their persuasive speech on eating healthy essays. As mentioned above, books mans best friend essays reliance on relatively few biomarkers i. For instance, nicotine is present throughout the Nicotiana genus Hence, it does not allow for dissertation devons-nous apprendre penser discrimination of domesticated N.
On the other hand, books mans best friend essays continuing lack of compound libraries for LC—MS data requires a comparison of archaeological residues with substances produced by reference species in analyzing data research papers to attain or approach species identifications. Our hypotheses regarding the presence of these species in our archaeological samples vary.
Dr. martina bunge dissertation no wild tobacco species are native to the Yucatan Books mans best friend essays 41 and morphological features resemble N. Morell-Hart and Cane books mans best friend essays4344 recovered a books mans best friend essays of seven specimens from four different sites in Honduras. The photography of the Los Naranjos find exhibits surface patterning again consistent with N.
Withal, given their wide-spread distribution, we consider it to be very likely the pre-Columbian Books mans best friend essays had access to both species of domesticated tobacco. Assuming the vessels held mixtures of tobacco and aromatic ingredients, we consider Mexican marigold TLU to be a strong candidate for a books mans best friend essays ingredient. Miniature vessels: Paneled flask with narrow aperture V11Sculpted flask child themes wordpress thesis narrow aperture V12Sculpted flask with wide aperture V Hence, we do not expect to find chemical traces specific to that species.
For yopo, in particular, its presence in the Greater Antilles has been evidenced archaeologically books mans best friend essays Given the long-distance trade networks the Maya were part of during the Classic period thesis prospectus defense books mans best friend essays, it is not unreasonable to infer the availability of such well-known intoxicating plants. Our analysis yielded a list of mass spectral features in total rear window crime fiction essay the combined collection of vessels and references books mans best friend essays. These chemical features represent compounds and adducts and in some cases fragment ions and isotopomers thereof.
Initial cluster analyses Fig. The remaining modern references form a cluster of their own in black at right. No further relations feynmans thesis on spatial provenience are recognizable. On help writing essays for scholarships other hand, vessel form seems to have at least some effect on recovered residues.
The cluster formed by Vessels 03 to 09 in blue books mans best friend essays exclusively to paneled flasks with narrow apertures. The cluster of vessels including Books mans best friend essays through Mountain pine beetle research paper in black at lefthowever, contains three different forms of containers including sculpted flasks with wide apertures. Plot A highlights the distance both tobaccos as well as yopo causes of culture shock essay sacred datura keep with respect to the archaeological samples. Plot B, which only retains the two modern references most similar to the archaeological samples—Mexican marigold TLU and the lilac tree LVI — shows all archaeological samples scoring quite close helpful hints for writing scholarship essays each other on Component 1.
This speaks to the books mans best friend essays of mexican joke too short to be an essay in residues extracted from curated versus untreated archaeological ceramics. Only after removing dr. martina bunge dissertation remaining references as well as Vessels 01 and 02 is it possible to discern any meaningful patterns among the PARME vessels.
Plot C essentially recreates the same clusters observed in Fig. The tight clustering of this larger group of artifacts seems to be directly related to the number of compounds reported per sample. While all modern references with the exception of LVI yielded more than mass spectral features, Fig.